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Group 1: Devin Kuegel, Erin Froelich, Dylan Kullman, Dustyn Kirby
Poem analysis: The chimney sweeper, from Soings of Innocence-

A little black thing in the snow,
Crying "weep! weep!" in notes of woe!
"Where are thy father and mother? Say!"--
"They are both gone up to the church to pray.

"Because I was happy upon the heath,
And smiled among the winter's snow,
They clothed me in the clothes of death,
And taught me to sing the notes of woe.

"And because I am happy and dance and sing,
They think they have done me no injury,
And are gone to praise God and his priest and king,
Who make up a heaven of our misery."
This poem is talking about the harsh life of being a chimney sweeper. Being left in the cold snow weeping as the parents are off at church.
Because i was born healthy and happy they make me do this job. (often times they did the job naked because the employer would not pay for the cost of clothes, they were rarely bathed) Now because i smile and sing they think i am happy and fine and have gone to praise God, who created all this misery.
The poem's connection to the Romantic Era is child labor. Many children during this time were being employed to make money for the family or to support themselves because they were being abandoned. Most children were being slowly worked to death.

Poem Analysis: The Poison Tree-

I was angry with my friend:
I told my wrath, my wrath did end.
I was angry with my foe;
I told it not, my wrath did grow.
And I water'd it in fears,
Night & morning with my tears;
And I sunned it with my smiles
And with soft deceitful wiles.
And it grew both day and night,
Till it bore an apple bright;
And my foe beheld it shine,
And he knew that it was mine,
And into my garden stole
When the night had veil'd the pole:
In the morning glad I see
My foe outstretch'd beneath the tree

This poem talks about the consequences of anger. When you are mad at a friend it will quickly pass, but anger at your enemy can ripen and turn deadly and sinful even though you may be glad about it.
Through the poems William Blake uses abab or aabb rhyme scheme and the use of imagery.
William Blake’s Bio
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1. William Blake revealed that he had powers of prophecy. When an engraver was introduced to him by his father, William saw a vision of the man being hanged as he did not like his face. Later on, it was proved that the engraver was indeed false as he was sent to the gallows for excessive debt and forgery.
2. Blake had a unique style of writing and he would always use two contradictory words in his works. For example, heaven and hell, spirit and reason and so on. His work had a unique dichotomy. Today, several poets copy this style in their own poetry.
3. Blake as a person loved poetry and in order to read poetry in their own languages, he learnt Hebrew, French, German and Latin. He soon mastered these languages.
4. Blake was considered as delusional because he often spoke of meeting God. This started when he just four years old. He claimed to have seen God, who put His head by his window. He also said that when he was nine years old he saw a tree full of angels. People thought he had a vivid imagination.
5. When Blake passed away, his so-called insanity was praised by William Wordsworth, who said that there was more to Blake's insanity than Lord Byron's or Walter Scott's sanity. Surprisingly, many of his fans, peers and friends who knew him well had a similar opinion. Because of these encounters, the image of the angel would be a constant symbol in William Blake's life.

Book Sections:
Intro – (simplified) this is what you need to know to understand British literature.
Currency –British money measured in pounds, shillings, and pence. Physical instruments of British money- paper bank notes and gold, silver, copper, and bronze coins. Even though the guinea stopped being minted in the early 1800s, certain objects were still being quoted in guineas. Bank of England took control of money distribution in the mid-1800s.
The Calendar –Some holidays had the same name, but were for different people. Ex: law courts,Cambridge, Oxford
Hogshead and Drams: English Measurement – Many measurements are the same as the US's. Differences include the furlong (660 ft.), stone, and the hundredweight.
England – Many of the county ended in –shire. There were fifty-two counties and some of them had some relation nineteenth century Englishmen. Jane Austen, George Eliot, and Charles Dickens were set in actual places either to the north or south, midlands, or in London itself accordingly.
London – geography was determined by the Thames. The old city in the center is just known as “the City”, which had once been surrounded by walls with seven gates. In various times different people lived traditional in the City. It was also very foggy thanks to the 800 to 1500 feet wide Thames River. The air in the 1800’s it was very dirty and nasty, as well being very much noise where almost anything could happen
Group 4 Fact Sheet
Adam Thies, James Coy-Dibley, Worth Baker, Grant Nation
Percy Bysshe Shelley – Transition, pg. 141-152

Important Facts:
· Ladies rode side saddle on horseback while alternating sides each day so they wouldn’t develop an overly enhanced buttock on one side.
· When horses died, they went to the “knacker” – the slaughterhouse. Horses were sliced, diced, and chopped into variety of products like sofas and mattresses from horsehair, glue from hooves, manure from bones, cartwheel grease from bone fat, and about 350 pounds of flesh left for cat and dog food.
· Before the railroad, the only way to get to places was by riding a horse
· Wagon was oldest form of wheeled transportation in 19th century Britain
· Carriages carried people; wagons carried goods
· Gig – basic two-wheeled, all-purpose, everyday work pleasure vehicle especially in the country
· Everything about a railroad initially modeled a stagecoach
· Trains had no light; people brought candles to read at night
· Effects of railroads: stagecoaches vanished, herds of sheep and cattle were no longer driven to market along the road, new industries that needed quick access to markets due to perishable products like milk sprang up
· Letters told only monumental information like inheritance, marriage, death (big news)
· Until 1840’s, envelopes were the paper the letter was written on, folded up, and sealed with wafers-small disks of gum and flour that were licked and stuck on the letter

Poet’s portrait:
percy_bysshe_shelley.jpg
Poet’s biography:
Percy Bysshe Shelley (4 August 1792 – 8 July 1822)
He only lived to the age of 29. He was considered a very authoritative voice at the time. His works have been very admired by Karl Marx, Mohandas Gandhi, Henry David Thoreau, and most importantly Oscar Wilde. He is credited with many, many prominent works, particularly, “Ozymandias”. He is credited as the co-author of the original “Frankenstein”. But that really only famous for riding on the glory of his wife’s “Frankenstein”.
Explication poem highlights:
Ozymadias (pg. 803)Some dude
Told me: there’s a broken statue
In the desert…Nearby
Sunken, a broken face, whose frown
And wrinkled lips, with a cold scowl
Lets you know that its sculptor made it this way
What still is around, is amoung nothing living
The sculptor made the statue like the man
An on the statue it reads:
“My name is Ozymandias, King of Kings
Look on my works, ye Mighty, and despair!”
Nothing but the statue remains, besides the decay of this colossal wreck, enormous and bare
The lone and level sands stretch far away

Shelly explains that nothing lasts forever, and dictators and rulers that believe themselves above all else will just be forgotten in the future. Alliteration is used often in the poem, and personification once at the end. Irony, if you consider that a literary device, is the central focus of the poem.

Exemplification of Romantic Regency Era:
Ozymandias shows the conventions of the Romantic period by showing the effects of man’s involvement. The most demanding and ruthless leaders all die eventually with the effects of their leadership fading away. Nature always consumes man eventually, so be nice and moral with your time on earth. Even Ozymandias himself tells you this with, “Look on my works, ye Mighty, and despair!” The quote gives a double meaning of telling the future that even he has failed.
Rachel Boles
Sabrina Jaquez
Wyter Payne

Samuel Taylor Coleridge
Money, Power and the Establishment

Book facts:
- Owning land makes you socially prestigious.
- Soap was taxed until 1853 with the consequence of poor personal hygiene which may have lead to epidemics of typhus.
- One could go to prison for debt
- Catholic could not sit in parliament until 1829 and Jews couldn’t until the 1860’s
- The conduct of parliamentary government could require endless speech making, sometimes four or five hours worth of the prime minister alone.
- The Navy would recruit sailor through “press-gang”, which meant that navy just grabbed civilian seamen off the streets.
- For many years the army was fed only two meals a day consisting of three quarters of a pound of beef and bread.
- At Cambridge the tripos exams, honors exams for classics and math, were named from the three legged wooden stools that the students sat on.
- In the early 1800’s there ware three kinds of law in England, common law, equity, and church, or canon law.
- Following an execution the criminal’s body would either be given a surgeon for an anatomy class of hung by chains form a gibbet (cross piece set about 25ft off the ground) preferably at a crossroad

sammy.jpgBiography:
- Samuel Taylor Coleridge was born in Ottery St. Mary on 21 October 1772, youngest of the ten children of John Coleridge a minister, and Ann Bowden Coleridge.
- Ran away at the age of seven and was found the next morning by a neighbor, many of his works reflect the events of his night outdoors.
- Attended Cambridge University in 1792, he left 2 years latter without a degree but a commitment to a utopian colony in America
- Was close to the poet William Wordworth, whom he studied with in Germany.
- Married Sara Fricker
- Had an opium addiction
- He died, surprisingly peacefully, on 25 July 1834

Kubla Khan:

Kubla Khan is a lyrical poem written by Samuel Taylor Coleridge ( it is said that he was on opium whenever he wrote the poem). The poem tells about the ruler of the Mongol empire in China and he is describing the scenery of Xanandu where the Alph river ran through the caverns 5 miles long and finally disappeared in to the lifeless ocean. The Walls and towers surrounded the area and the gardens were bright and beautiful and the forests were as ancient as the hills. He describes the place as holy and enchanted and all of a sudden he hears a woman wailing for her demon lover. He began to hear the ancestral voices bringing prophecies of war. A dark cloud covers the oceans and the once beautiful scenery. The speaker says he saw a damsel playing the dulcimer and singing the song “of Mount Ahora”. He says that if he could revive her symphony and song he would rebuild the pleasure-dome (Xanadu) out of music and bring happiness and beauty to place. The others who saw or heard him would cry “Beware” and close their eyes with fear knowing that he had tasted honeydew or “drunk the milk of Paradise.”

A Brief Explanation detailing how the poem exemplifies the Romantic or Regency Era:
In Kubla Khan almost all Romantic elements are used: spontaneity, imagination, dream-quality, magic, a blend of realism and surrealism, and more. The use of these certain elements might have to do with Coleridge writing the poem while on an opium high while dreaming. This poem has allusions to the human desires we all have—pleasure, order, beauty, chaos, and war. It’s a vivid, magical dream that upon waking doesn’t make much logic, even to the dreamer. The theme and style create together a world of supernatural and creativity. Although not supernatural in a straight sense, it charms the reader into its world.
Macauley Campbell, Anna Coke, Raghav Goyal, Clark Hayden
George Gordon and Lord Byron, 233-255

The most interesting parts of the book were the occupations, like pie maker, and the diseases.
lord_byron.jpg
He was born with a club foot. He was a player all through his life. He had many affairs, most with women, some with men, and one with his half sister. He was very poor in England and when his debts were accumulating he left for Geneva and lived with Percy and Mary Shelley. He died because he got sick, and the usual treatment was bleeding, which made it worse. He then got better for a while and then he got sick again, but he knew the doctors were stupid so he tried to cure himself with unsterilized medical instruments, so he got an infection called sepsis that killed him.
From Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage, Canto IV by George Gordon, Lord Byron – This excerpt from a poem is told by someone who is very “Romantic.” He states how great the ocean is and how it is untouched by man. He writes how the water is uncontrolled by man. He recollects his time near the ocean and how it has been his life. He then describes himself as old and blinding. He writes about how his spirit is dying out too. The last stanza is his last goodbye to the ocean.

Emily Bickel
Austin Hohiemer
Elizabeth Lampert
Natalie Sapp
Robert Burns
The Private World: pgs. 179-232
· Until 1823, a man or woman under the age of twenty-one could not marry without parental information.
· When the husband and wife exchanged vows, they became one person, and, in the words of a jurist William Blackstone, “the husband is that person.” The wife lost all powers over property that she possessed.
· The dwelling of the rural poor was generally a thatch-roofed cottage, with one big room if the family were very poor, or a kitchen and then a separate bedroom if the family were a bit better off, and up to four rooms in a really good dwelling.
· For those with more money, the object was to have a house like the nobility or gentry.
· Before 1828 the chairs and sofas had no springs so they were not comfortable.
· Rushlights was the most widely used form of illumination in England before the coming of gas. The poor could make them for free, instead of paying taxes on candles whenever they bought them.
  • Romans made the first Pudding, sausage. They poured meat or blood, and spices into animal's intestines.
  • Tea was popular in the 1800s because water had to be boiled so it would be safe.
  • Throughout the 1800s England consumed about 30 gallons of beer per year per household.
  • The womens' dresses had no pockets
  • Men's apparel was modeled after riding clothes; natural and unartificial
  • Servants made up 16 percent of the national workforce.
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Highlights of Robert Burns’ Biography
· His mother taught him old Scottish songs and stories, which he later turned into poems as part of his literary career.

· Wrote "Auld Lang Syne."

· Collected, adapted, and wrote over 300 Scottish folk songs.

· Liked to pass himself off as an "illiterate ploughman who wrote from pure inspiration."

· Blended folk idioms with literary language, writing in both English and Scottish.

· Born in a house built by his father that housed his family as well as their cow and other animals.

· It is possible that Burns was short-sighted, because he never wrote about the stunning views that must have been had from his farms.

· His formal education consisted of some lessons in handwriting at age 13 and a summer spent learning surveying and measurement when he was 16.
· A portrait Burns himself deemed innaccurate is now used on Scottish banknotes.

· Burns is reported to have been quite the ladies' man, fathering approximately 12 children from more than at least three unmarried women.

To a Mouse
· A Scottish man accidentally overturns the nest of a mouse.
· He feels bad and apologizes because he didn’t mean to hurt the mouse.
· Burns is sorrowful over the separation on mature and man.
· The Scotsman continues to tell the mouse that he isn’t alone in being disturbed at home sometimes; people don’t always get along.
· Themes:
o Respect Nature
· Literary devices
o Colloquialism (Scottish vernacular)
To a Louse
· A lady freaks out because she sees a louse on a wealthy lady’s bonnet at Church.
· She calls is a creepy, blasted wonder and says it should look for dinner on someone else.
· Burns reveals that even high-society people are not exempt from lice and other pesky things.
· He also thinks that maybe people go to church to put up an act and not because they are genuinely interested.
· Themes:
o Societal differentiation
· Literary devices:
o Colloquialism
Romantic/Regency Era

· The Romantic era turned away from the ideas of the 18th century, which focused on reason and artifice. The romantic era was exemplified by...
·
· A child's sense of wonder, a sense of awe regarding nature in the "new dawn" of the Romantic age. This is compared to a child's perception of the world.
·
· Social idealism, in which romantics imagine a better world. They view the development of human societies as cyclical, imagining a better life to come in society.
·
· Adaptation to change, because romantics knew that change was inevitable. Instead of trying to resist change, they embraced and often encouraged it.
·
· A rejection of the formal and witty works of the previous century. They preferred to speak of personal experiences and emotions.
·
· The authors' inner dream world that was more picturesque than the actual world in which they lived.
·
· Sympathy for individual liberty and those who rebelled against tyranny.
·
· A focus on nature in relation to humanity.

To a Mouse....
·
· Romantics focused on nature as beautiful even above mankind, and in the opening stanza Robert Burns insists that he has no intention of harming the mouse
·
· In a similar way, Burns apologizes for all of mankind to the mouse for "breaking nature's social union."
·
· Burns was intrigued by the mouse in a childlike manner
·
· Burns is sympathetic to the mouse
·
· He idealizes a world where mice and men can coexist peacefully without harming one another
·
To a Louse...
·
· Romantics embraced social idealism, and Burns insulted those who thought they were above other classes of people, asserting that all people were equal
·
· Still exemplifying social idealism, Burns imagines a better world in which people could see how foolish they may look, and therefore humble themselves.
·
· Burns sees the event through the eyes of a child, disagreeing with the social class system because he sees no real distinction between the classes of people
Caitlin Burton, Kendall Moore, Audrey Shelton, Bobby Glenn

William Wordsworth: pgs 30-84
Biography:
  • Wordsworth was Britain's Poet Laureate from 1843 until he died in 1850. This meant he was appointed by the government to compose poems for government occasions.
  • Although he rarely saw his dad, Wordsworth learn poetry from his dad.
  • He contemplated committing suicide because he always fought with his grandparents.
  • His first writing piece was The European Magazine
  • He produced Lyrical Ballads with his sister, Dorothy, and it also was an important work in the English Romantic movement.
  • Wordsworth, Dorothy, and Coleridge became known as the Lake Poets because they lived in Lake District and they wrote about death, endurance, separation, and grief.
  • He married his childhood friend, Mary Hutchinson, and they had five children.
external image william_wordsworth.jpg
"Lines Composed a Few Miles above Tintern Abbey"
  • Wordsworth visits a place where his sister is burried and he thinks back at all the memories that were made
  • He talks about how nature has shaped his life even when he was absent from the location.
  • When he was placed in crowded towns or when he was alone, he always thought about nature.
  • Wordsworth said that his love for nature influenced his deeds of kindness and love.
  • He encourages the moon to shine on his sister, Dorothy, and the wind to blow against her.
  • He also says that whenever she is sad or fearful, the memory of this experience will help her to heal.
  • Themes: childhood memories of nature and religious sentiment
  • literary devices: monologue, blank verse, imagery of nature, metaphors to describe nature and his life
They Public World, The Major Rituals pgs 30-84:

Jane Austen book-
The Titled-Dukes, Marquesses, earls, viscounts, and barons (ranked in that order)
then the baronets and knights (addressed as sir)
the titles were hereditary, with few exceptions,

How to Address Your Betters
in Direct convo-
Your Majesty-to king or queen
Your Royal Highness- to the monarch's spouse, children, and siblings.
Your Highness-to the nephews, nieces, and cousins of the soveregin.
and so on...
In Direct Writting communication:
the Most Reverend-to an archbishop
His Grace-to a duke or an archbishop
and so on...
Couresy Titles:
Lord-to the eldest son of a duke, marquis, or earl...
Lord- to a younger son of a duke or marquis...
Lady, the Honourable

ESQ., Gent., K.C.B., Etc.
Common abbreviations: Bart., Bt., Esq. (Esquire), Gent., B.A., D.D., K.C.,

Basic Ettiquette
Gentleman:
1. When riding or walking, Lady always has the wall.
2. you precede the lady going up stairs, and follow her coming down.
3. if at a public exhibition or concert & accompanied by a lady, the man goes first to find the lady a seat.
and so on...
Ladies:
1. If unmarried and under 30, she is to be accompanied by a chaperone...
2.under no circumstances may a lady call on a gentleman alone unless she is consulting that gentleman on a professional or business matter.
3. a lady does not wear pearls or diamonds in the morning.
and so on...

The Rules of Whist and Other Card Games:
All-Fours, Begger My Neighbor, Casino, Commerce, Cribbage, Ecarte, Euchre, and so on...

Presentation at Court:
young girl into fashionable society , her coming out after which she was free required to marry.
men came out too, to show they had outgrown the awkwardness of adolescence.

Romantic/Regency Era:
  • Artistic, literary, and intellectual movement at the end of the eighteenth century
  • It focused on nature and people's emotions such as horror, terror, and awe.
  • This era was a revolta against the Age of Enlightenment and the scientific rationalization of nature.
  • It also revived medievalism and elements of art and narrative perceived to be medieval
  • Literature led to new ideas and positive voices.